Friday, October 26, 2012
French Champagne Houses and German Roots
Champagne, made in the méthode champenoise with grapes grown in the Champagne region in France, is without any doubt the most famous sparkler in the world. Interestingly, the roots of many Champagne Houses are in Germany.
The Champagne region lies at the northern edge of the world’s vineyard-growing areas. So, Champagne’s grapes bear the hallmark acidity of a cool climate region. In 1927, the viticultural boundaries of Champagne were legally defined and split into five wine producing districts - The Aube, Côte des Blancs, Côte de Sézanne, Montagne de Reims, and Vallée de la Marne. The Champagne area covers 33,500 hectares of vineyards around 319 villages that are home to 100 Champagne Houses that buy grapes and make their own Champagne, 5,000 growers who grow grapes and make their own wine and 14,000 growers who only sell grapes. The region is set to expand to include 359 villages in the near future.
Champagne first gained world renown because of its association with the French Court. Royalty from throughout Europe spread the message of the unique sparkling wine from Champagne and its association with luxury and power in the 17th, 18th and 19th century.
The Ruinart Champagne House was the first Champagne House founded in 1729, soon followed by Taittinger (1734), Moët et Chandon (1743), Veuve Clicquot (1772) and others.
Sparkling wine houses sprung up all over Europe in the 1800s. In Germany, Kessler, was the first Sekt house, founded in 1826 by Georg Kessler, who had worked for Veuve Clicqot. Fürst von Metternich started to produce Sekt in a beautiful castle overlooking the Rhein river in the Rheingau. Von Metternich received the castle from the Austrian Emperor Franz I in 1816 as a gift for his skillful negotiations as his Minister of Foreign Affairs during the Vienna congress (1814 -15).
In Austria, the German Robert Schlumberger moved from the Champagne region with his future wife to Vienna and established in 1842 a Sekt House there. Schlumberger was born in Germany, worked in Reims in a Champagne house and married an Austrian, who brought him to the capital of Austria. There, he rose quickly and became the “father” of the Austrian Sekt industry. For over 150 years Schlumberger has been producing their Sekts in the méthode champenoise. See: German Wine Makers in the World: Robert Alwin Schlumberger--the Father of Austrian Sekt (Austria)
Many famous Champagne Houses have German roots.
Veuve Clicquot's cellar master, the German Anton Mueller, who invented the remuage technique, married into the Ruinart family. With the Ruinart daughter, Anton Mueller created his own Champagne House, Ruinart-Mueller, which does not exist anymore. While at the helm of Ruinart-Mueller, his compatriot Bollinger was one of his employees, before leaving Ruinart-Mueller and setting up his own Champagne House.
Bollinger joined Mueller-Ruinart in 1822 to sell their Champagne in the Kingdoms of Bavaria, Hanover, Wuerttemberg and the Netherlands. In 1829, with his Mueller-Ruinart colleague Paul Renaudin de Villermont and with Athanase Hennequin de Villermont, Joseph-Jacob Bollinger (he took the name of Jacques Bollinger when he was naturalised French in 1854) formed the Renaudin-Bollinger Champagne House which would become the famous Bollinger Champagne House.
The Champagne House Mumm was founded in Reims in 1827 by the 3 German brothers Gottlieb, Jacobus and Philipp Mumm; they named it Champagne House P.A. Mumm, after their father, the German banker and wine merchant P. A. Mumm. After the death of Gottlieb Mumm, the Champagne House P.A. Mumm was broken up into two: G. H. Mumm + Co. (named after Gottlieb Mumm’s son Georg Hermann) and Jules Mumm + Co. (named after Jacobus Mumm’s son Julius Engelbert).
Jules Mumm created the famous Mumm Cordon Rouge in France. In 1910, after the dissolution of Jules Mumm + Co., G. H. Mumm + Co bought back the rights of the brand Jules Mumm. So, all the Mumm brands were again in one hand at that point.
Following the end of World War I, the French Government confiscated all of the Mumm's property, although the Mumms had lived in Champagne for almost a century, because they had never bothered to become French citizens. The Mumm family returned to Germany and settled in Frankfurt am Main.
In 1922, the Sekt House Mumm + Co. was founded in Germany by Godefroy H. von Mumm. In 1970, the Canadian Seagram Group bought both the French Champagne House G.H. Mumm and the German Sekt House Mumm + Co.
In 2002, the Canadian Seagam Group decided to divest from both the French and the German Mumm branches. Pernod Ricard bought the Champage House G.H. Mumm and Rotkaeppchen bought the German Sekt House Mumm + Co, including Jules Mumm.
See: Visiting Rotkaeppchen-Mumm - the Second Largest Producer of Sparkling Wine in the World - in Freyburg (Saale-Unstrut), Germany
Krug was established in 1843 by Johann-Joseph Krug, a German from Mainz. Johann-Joseph learned his trade at the Champagne House Jacquesson before setting up Krug in Reims. His son, Paul continued the family business, who was succeeded by his son, Joseph Krug II in 1910. Today, Krug is part of the global luxury brands conglomerate Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy (LVMH).
The Champagne House Veuve Clicquot was for many years owned by Eduard Werle from Germany. It operated under the name Werlé & Cie., Successeurs de Veuve Clicquot-Ponsardin for 100 years.
Originally, the Clicquot company, established in 1772 by Philippe Clicquot, was dealing not only in champagne, but principally in textiles and finance. In 1801, Philippe handed control of the company to his son, François. At that time, François was already married to Nicole-Barbe Ponsardin, the future Veuve Clicquot. Veuve Clicquot played an important role in establishing Champagne as a favored drink of haute bourgeoisie and nobility throughout Europe, including Russia.
When a financial crisis hit the Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin Champagne house, Eduard Werle was already a wealthy senior manager and ready to assume responsability. The decline of the finances could have meant the end of the Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin Champagne house, were it not for the fact that Eduard Werle succeeded in putting together a rescue package and paying off the firm's debts with his own money. In return, he was made a business partner by Madame Clicquot in 1828. Over the coming years, she increasingly relied on Eduard Werle as he put the company back on a sound footing.
During the French Revolution of 1830, the July Revolution, which saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc d’Orleans, Eduard Werle temporarily had to relocate and abandoned the company to go back to Germany. But after the revolution, he returned to Reims to continue to run the finances of the company. He became Deputy Director in 1831. In 1836, he married M. Boisseau.
Eduard Werle assumed full control of the Veuve Clicquot estate in 1841 upon Nicole-Barbe's retirement, 20 years after he had joined the company as a cellar man. 25 years later, when Madame Clicquot died in 1866, in her will, she did not give the company to her daughter or her son-in-law. She was so grateful to Eduard Werle that she made him the sole owner of the Veuve Clicquot estate.
The Champagne House was renamed Werlé & Cie., Successeurs de Veuve Clicquot-Ponsardin, when Eduard became the sole owner. The Champagne house continued to operate under this name until 1964, when it became Veuve Clicquot-Ponsardin again. Since 1987 the Veuve Clicquot company has been part of the Louis Vuitton Moet Hennessy group.
See: German Wine Makers in the World: Eduard Werle --- Owner of the Veuve Cliquot Champagne house (France)
3rd Annual Champagne Day
Today, October 26, 2012 is the 3rd Annual Champagne Day. For more, see: 3rd Annual Champagne Day on October 26th, 2012, France
In order to participate, all you have to do is get some Champagne in your glass today and share your photos, tasting notes, experiences or videos on any social media site. Be sure to add the #ChampagneDay hashtag, so your friends from around the globe can share in the fun.
You'll be able to search what other wine lovers are sharing by searching posts using tools like Tweetdeck, Google, twitterfall.com, hootsuite.com or kurrently.com to name a few. This is a global event set to run 24 hours in order to give everyone time to share a glass when it makes sense in their time zone.
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3rd Annual Champagne Day on October 26th, 2012, France